Senior Project Policy

 
 

Policy Update: Policy Update on SP (May 29, 2013)

WHEREAS, the curriculum of the BS in Information Technology program was revised in 2002 to include the senior project as a required course, and that said revision affected students admitted to the program starting the same year;

WHEREAS, the current policies, procedures, and guidelines for the Senior Project are contained in different documents, issuances, memoranda and presentations, and there is now the necessity to compile and codify them in a single document;

NOW, THEREFORE, we, the Faculty of Computer Science, do hereby adopt this 2006 Policy on Senior Project for BS in Computer Science, BS in Information Technology, and BS in Information Systems.

 

Title I
ENROLLMENT REQUIREMENT

 

Section 1.  Regular Enrollment. Regular enrollment means first time to enroll in the subject, or enrollment in the subject at a subsequent time with a project proposal different from what has been proposed in the prior enrollment. A proposal sheet, signed by the proponent, endorsed by the adviser, noted by the department chairperson, and approved by the college dean is required for regular enrollment.

Section 2. Re-enrollment. Re-enrollment means enrollment in the subject with a project proposal substantially similar to his or her project proposal in the same subject which he or she has taken in the semester immediately preceding the current semester. A duly accomplished application form for preliminary defense, including all the requirements for preliminary defense, shall be required for re-enrollment.

Section 3. Maximum Academic Load. No student shall be allowed to enroll in the Senior Project if his or her total academic load shall exceed 18 units. Likewise, no student shall be allowed to enroll in the Senior Project while simultaneously taking Senior Practicum in the same semester, except if the total academic load shall not exceed 9 units, but which shall in no case include the summer semester.

Section 4. Eligibility. Only students who have previously taken the Senior Project, those who are scheduled to take the Senior Project based on their curriculum, and those who are expecting to graduate at the end of the semester may be allowed to enroll in the Senior Project under regular enrollment. Similarly, only students who are eligible for re-enrollment may be allowed to enroll and work on the same project.

Section 5. Project Proposal. No student shall be allowed to enroll in the Senior Project without a pre-approved topic. Thus, the student must consult a faculty of his or her choice, the department chairperson, or the college dean, as to the acceptability of his or her proposed project topic. The college, from time to time, issues guidelines as to the direction of research projects that must be taken and all senior project proposals must conform to said direction.

Section 6. Defense Schedules. As a general rule, the academic department sets the schedule for proposal defense, preliminary defense, and final defense, normally spanning a period of one week each. Those who have re-enrolled, however, may propose a new schedule different from the schedule of the regularly enrolled students, subject to the approval of the academic department chairperson, provided that the schedule for final defense be unchanged.

 

Title II
PROPOSAL DEFENSE

 

Section 1. Definition. Proposal defense is the first step towards completion of the Senior Project. The proposal defense is where the student orally presents his or her project proposal to a 3-man panel for examination as to technical soundness and practicality. Failure to go through proposal defense before the scheduled University-wide preliminary examinations shall be tantamount to a grade of failure due to excessive absences or AF.

Section 2. Proposal Defense Requirements. A student shall not be allowed to go through proposal defense without the following: (a) duly accomplished application form; (b) approval of the adviser; (c) certificate of attendance given during the Senior Project orientation; (d) first chapter of the required documentation (or the research description), in triplicate; (e) GANTT chart for the project, in triplicate; and (f) proposal defense fee of Three Hundred and Seventy Five Pesos (Php 375.00). If the student failed to attend the Senior Project orientation, a notarized joint affidavit of undertaking from both parent and student, stating among others (a) the reason for failure to attend the orientation; (b) strict adherence to the Policy on Senior Project; and (c) waiver of right to appeal or other recourse, shall be submitted in lieu of the certificate of attendance. Guardians may execute the affidavit in behalf of a parent if and only if both parents are deceased, or if the court has appointed a legal guardian.

Section 3. Proposal Defense Schedule. The academic department shall come up with a schedule for a proposal defense period, normally a week, for which students can apply and sign up on a first come, first served basis. Applications for proposal defense shall be accepted not later than one week prior to the first day of the scheduled defense period. Failure to apply for defense on time shall have the same effect as not having gone through proposal defense.

Section 4. Panel Decisions in Proposal Defense. The panelists can come up with any of the three possible decisions, which are (1) Acceptance of Proposal with Revision; (2) Re-defense; or (3) Non-acceptance. The decision of the panelists is final.

Section 5. Acceptance of Proposal with Revision.When a proposal is accepted with revision, revisions are necessary but need not be presented to and checked by the panelists in another oral defense session. Revision(s) for an accepted proposal must be completed within one week from the issuance of the decision. The revision(s) must be submitted to the adviser within said period. The decision of the panelists shall be available within a week from submission of the revision(s).

Section 6. Re-defense. When a re-defense is required, the student must set a schedule with the panelists for another oral defense session, where the student will present again his or her project to the panelists. If the panel decision is re-defense, all requirements must be completed as soon as possible, and another defense schedule should be arranged with the adviser. Failure to re-defend within two weeks shall be deemed as failure to defend.

Section 7. Non-acceptance. Non-acceptance means that the proponent failed to comply with requirements, the proponent failed to achieve the objectives, or that the project is not feasible. If the panel decision is non-acceptance, the student should come up with another proposal, and schedule another proposal defense within one week from the last day of the regular proposal defense period.

Section 8. Changes in the Proposal. There shall be no changes in the Senior Project proposal after the proposal defense. Changes in the scope and specific objectives may be allowed only in exceptional cases and prior to the preliminary defense, provided that the endorsements of the adviser and of the department chairperson are obtained in a letter of request for such change, signed by the student and noted by one of his or her parents.

Title III
PRELIMINARY DEFENSE

Section 1. Definition. The preliminary defense is the penultimate step towards completion of the Senior Project. The preliminary defense is where the student orally presents his or her project proposal to his or her panelists for examination as to technical soundness. The preliminary defense is important because it is a checkpoint that determines progress and direction in the Senior Project process.

Section 2. Preliminary Defense Requirements. A student shall not be allowed to go through preliminary defense without the following: (a) duly accomplished application form; (b) approval of the adviser; (c) certification from the adviser that the student has completed at least half of his or her specific project objectives as approved in the proposal defense; (d) complete documentation, except source code and conclusion; (e) compliance with the recommendations and requirements by the panelists as stated in the letter of acceptance; and (f) preliminary defense fee of Three Hundred and Seventy Five Pesos (Php 375.00).

Section 3. Preliminary Defense Schedule. The academic department shall come up with a schedule for preliminary defense period, normally a week, for which students can apply and sign up on a first come, first served basis. Applications for preliminary defense shall be accepted not later than one week prior to the first day of the scheduled defense period.

Section 4. Results of Preliminary Defense. The panelists shall come up with a document that outlines their findings and recommendations, and communicate the same to the student through his or her adviser. The panelists may also add minor requirements, but they shall not make any major requirement, except if the panelist is a replacement panelist.

Title IV
FINAL DEFENSE

Section 1. Definition. The final defense is the last step towards completion of the Senior Project. The final defense is where the student orally presents his or her project proposal to his or her panelists for evaluation. The final defense determines whether or not the student has successfully complied with all the requirements for the completion of the project.

Section 2. Final Defense Requirements. A student shall not be allowed to go through final defense without the following: (a) duly accomplished application form; (b) approval of the adviser; (c) certification from the adviser that the student has completed his or her specific project objectives as approved in the proposal defense; (d) complete documentation; (e) full compliance with all the recommendations and requirements by the panelists as stated in the letter of acceptance (if the student did not go through preliminary defense) or compliance with the recommendations and requirements by the panelists as a result of the preliminary defense; (f) user’s manual; (g) project packaging; and (h) final defense fee of Three Hundred and Seventy Five Pesos (Php 375.00).

Section 3. Final Defense Schedule. The academic department shall come up with a schedule for final defense period, normally a week, for which students can apply and sign up on a first come, first served basis. Applications for final defense shall be accepted not later than one week prior to the first day of the scheduled defense period.

Section 4. Results of Final Defense. The student shall be evaluated and his performance graded during the final defense based on complete acceptable deliverables, well-prepared and delivered presentation, and productive Q&A portion. A letter grade below B shall mean unsatisfactory performance and hence the student must enroll the Senior Project again under regular enrollment without the option to work on the same topic.

Section 5. Failure to Defend. A student who failed to apply for final defense, or one who has applied for final defense but failed to show up during the defense schedule or showed up late for the defense, shall receive a numeric grade of 65. However, a student who is eligible for final defense may re-enroll the subject in the subsequent semester with option to continue work on the same topic.

Title V
PANELISTS

Section 1. Functions of the Panelists. The panelists shall be the quality assurance function for the Senior Project, ensuring that the project scope and complexity is sufficient for the student as it is also within acceptable level of standards, and that the project is doable within the given time frame.

Section 2. Qualifications of the Panelist. As a general rule, only full-time members of the Faculty of Computer Studies may serve as a panelist. An exception is when there is a need to invite an expert from another field in case of a multidisciplinary Senior Project, subject to the approval of the academic department chairperson. In such a case, the invited expert will sit as a fourth panel member who can participate in the proceedings but will not be asked to give a quantitative evaluation or grade.

Section 3. Composition of the Panel. The student selects one member of the panel and the adviser selects another, subject to the approval of the department chairperson, who also selects the third member of the panel. The panel members, in turn, chooses from among themselves the lead panelist, who prepares the defense report and panel comments, suggestions, and recommendations. A fourth panel member may be admitted when necessary, as in the case of an invited expert serving as a panelist in a multidisciplinary Senior Project.

Section 4. Term of the Panelists. The panelists for the proposal defense, unless replaced for cause, shall serve as such panelists until conclusion of the semester. A panelist may be replaced only upon the instance of the student or his or her adviser, and only if the panelist cannot be available during the scheduled defense dates. A panelist may also be replaced upon voluntary inhibition.

Section 5. Consultation with the Panelist. To uphold the academic integrity of the panel members and to prevent any undue influence or any impropriety, students are prohibited to consult with their panelists outside of the actual oral defense.

Section 6. Compensation for the Panelists. Each panelist shall be paid One Hundred and Twenty Five Pesos (Php 125.00) for serving as such for each project defense. This payment is exclusive of the tuition and fees paid by the student, and shall be paid by the student to the panelists through his or her adviser.

Section 7. Replacement of a Panelist. The student may, at his or her option, ask that a panelist be replaced in case the panelist is not available for the scheduled defense. On the other hand, if a panelist is not available on the scheduled defense date and the student is willing to wait for the availability of the panelist, the student shall be given an extension on subsequent defense schedules a maximum of two weeks reckoned from the last day of the scheduled defense week to schedule his or her defense.

Such extension or allowance, however, may not be used for the final defense, except if the student is not a graduating student and there is no deadline of submission of grades that need to be complied with. In such a case, the student and one of his or her parent (or legal guardian, if any has been appointed by the court or if both parents are deceased) must execute a joint affidavit of undertaking, stating among others their adherence to this Policy and waiver of their right to appeal or other recourse.

In case of resignation, incapacity, or death of a panelist, the dean of the college shall sit as or appoint a replacement panelist.

Title VI
ADVISER

Section 1. Functions of the Adviser. The adviser shall be the first instance of quality assurance for the Senior Project, ensuring that the project scope and complexity is sufficient for the student as it is also within acceptable level of standards, and that the project is doable within the given time frame. The adviser likewise provides technical guidance to the student, but shall not be expected to help the student in program coding. The adviser can point to or help look for resources, but shall not be expected to acquire them for the student.

Section 2. Qualifications of the Adviser. The student chooses his or her adviser prior to enrollment. Only full-time members of the Faculty of Computer Studies may serve as a Senior Project adviser. The student may, however, at his or her option, seek advice from other resource persons, in addition to his or her official academic adviser.

Section 3. Term of the Adviser. The Senior Project is offered as a tutorial class. Hence, the adviser shall serve as such only  during the semester of enrollment, or within the period for completion of an incomplete grade in the case of an advisee who has revisions to make after the final defense.

Section 4. Consultation with the Adviser. The adviser may be consulted only during his or her consultation period, during scheduled meetings, or at the option of the adviser, at any time he or she is free. No student, however, may consult the adviser by phone or otherwise at the residence of the latter. The adviser must be given due respect and privacy.

Section 5. Required Consultation. The student is required to consult his or her adviser at least once a month, or as frequent as necessary. There is no required number of consultation hours, but a student must show up for consultation during scheduled consultation periods. A grade of Absence Due to Excessive Failure or AF may be given by the adviser for failure of the student to report for consultation or for failure to comply with requirements for submission. (Cf Sec. 6, Title VII)

Section 6. Replacement of the Adviser. An adviser may be replaced at the instance of the student, upon voluntary inhibition, or upon separation from service, disability or death. The replacement may be effected only before the preliminary defense if the replacement is due to the first two causes, or at anytime if due to the other causes.

Title VII
GRADING SCHEME

Section 1. Components of Final Grade. The final grade of the student shall be computed as follows: 50% to be given by the adviser, 50% to be given by the panelists during the final oral defense.

Section 2. Grade from the Adviser. The adviser shall evaluate the student advisee based on the following: (1) compliance to schedule, 10%; compliance to schedule means compliance to scheduled tasks based on the GANTT chart and compliance to scheduled meetings or sessions with the adviser; (2) compliance to the written project objectives, 35%; (3) implementation, consisting of programming competence and use of statistical tools, 25%; and (4) depth of research study, 30%.

Section 3. Grade from the Panelists. Each panel member shall evaluate the student based on the following: (1) compliance to general recommendations, such as literature, theoretical framework, certifications, and the like, 20%; (2) compliance to design recommendations, 25%; design recommendations include software design, database design, interface design, algorithm design, use of advanced or appropriate tools and techniques, and quality of instruments used; (3) presentation, 15%; presentation includes ability to reason and communicate ideas clearly and logically, mastery of the subject matter and related topics, objective and scholarly answers and clear explanations and justification to questions or comments raised by panel members, minimal reliance on adviser for answers to questions raised by panel members, and display of desirable professional behavior; (4) user’s manual, installation guide, and system requirements, 10%; and (5) content, 30%.

Section 4. Grade of Incomplete (INC). As a general rule, a student must receive a final grade at the end of the semester when the Senior Project was taken. An INC grade cannot and will not be used as a substitute for F or AF. However, a grade of INC may be given and only in the case where, after having gone through final defense, the student needs to do further revisions in his or her work and such revisions cannot be made in time for the submission of grades.

Section 5. Effect of INC. The grade of INC will give the student a full semester to complete consistent with the University policy on completion of incomplete grades.

Section 6. Failure Due to Excessive Absences. The student may be given a final grade of AF or failure due to excessive absences upon incurring 7 hours of absence or its equivalent. Absence from a scheduled meeting with the adviser shall be considered as an hour of absence. Failure to submit a requirement for submission shall be considered as an absence of two hours, while late submission of a requirement for submission shall be considered as an hour of absence.

Section 7. Effect of Failure Due to Excessive Absences. In general, a student receiving a grade of AF must enroll the subject again under regular enrollment. However, if the student can show that he or she is eligible for final defense at the time the AF was incurred, he or she may be allowed to re-enroll in the subsequent semester and work on the same project.

Title VIII
GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 1. Duty of the Student. It is the duty of the student to comply with all the requirements for the successful completion of the Senior Project. The student is expected to work independently on his or her project himself or herself. No student may ask anyone to write program code for his or her project, and each student doing Senior Project is expected to observe academic honesty and respect for intellectual property.

Section 2. Academic Dishonesty. Academic dishonesty, which includes breach of intellectual property rights and use of program code written by somebody else for the purpose of the Senior Project shall merit an automatic failing grade in the course, without prejudice to disciplinary sanctions pursuant to existing University rules and regulations.

Section 3. Intellectual Property Rights. The Senior Project, upon submission to and acceptance by the College of Computer Studies, becomes the property of the Ateneo de Naga University. Intellectual property rights to the same, including rights of reproduction, shall be vested in the University.

Section 4. Required Defense Attire. The student should come for the defense in business attire. Business attire is defined as dress or suit for women and barong or long sleeves with tie for men. Women may wear leather or fabric shoes. Men should wear leather shoes. Under no circumstance shall anyone be allowed to go through defense without the proper attire. (See Appendix A for details on business attires).

Section 5. Call Time for Oral Defense. The student must be present at least 15 minutes before the scheduled defense. Failure to show up on time for the scheduled defense in proper attire shall be deemed as absence. No grace period shall be given, unless force majeure has intervened. The official Ateneo de Naga University time shall be used for these purposes, i.e. Bloomberg time.

Section 6. Venue of Defense. The defense may be scheduled at any venue, provided that it will not be a public venue where the student may feel embarrassed by having the public at large as audience. The defense shall, in general, be open only to the adviser, the panelists, the faculty, and members of the academic council.

Section 7. Duration of Defense. The presentation must be limited to 20 minutes only. The presentation shall be followed by a Q&A period, during which the panelists can ask clarificatory questions or other questions that will aid them evaluate the project. Deliberation of the panelists shall follow, and their decision shall be given thereafter.

Section 8. Submission of Documents. Documents that need to be forwarded to the panelists must be submitted one week prior to the scheduled defense. This is to give time to the panelists to read the documents. Thus, a student who has not submitted the required documents on time shall be deemed to have withdrawn his or her application for defense, and he or she accepts the consequences therefor.

Section 9. Document Format. The format of the documentation should follow the template given as appendix in this document. The format of the article which is a shorter version of the full documentation should follow the ACM paper format template which can be downloaded from the ACM website. The same is likewise given as appendix in this document.

Title IX
CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS

Section 1. Requirements for Submission.For purposes of obtaining clearance for the release of diploma and academic records, the student must, relative to the Senior Project, submit the following: (1) a certification from an English teacher as to the correctness of the grammar used in the documentations, including the article in ACM paper format; (2) a certification from a statistician (for studies requiring statistical analysis); (3) softbound copy of the documentation; (4) printout of the article in ACM paper format; (5) softcopy of files and documents in minidisk (installer, source code, user’s manual, documentation, and article in ACM paper format, in PDF where appropriate); (5) a printout of the COCOMO estimate; and (6) the SP duration survey.

Section 2. Qualification of the English Teacher. An English teacher may issue a certification if he or she is a licensed teacher (for those teaching in the primary and secondary school, in which case a photocopy of their professional license should be attached to the certification) or if he or she is teaching in a higher education institution (in which case a copy of the employment certificate or appointment paper must be attached to the certification). The requirements herein are waived if the person is employed in the Ateneo de Naga University.

Section 3. Paper Size. The softbound documentation, ACM-format article, and COCOMO printout must be in a short-size bond paper 8.5” x 11”.

Section 4. Other Requirement. For purposes of obtaining clearance for the release of diploma and academic records, the student must, in addition to the requirements for submission, participate in the annual public presentation of his or her Senior Project. The annual public presentation of Senior Project is scheduled and organized by the academic department. A student who wishes to conduct the public presentation of his or her Senior Project outside of the annual schedule must do so at his or her own expense.

Title X
CONCLUDING PROVISIONS

Section 1. Residual Principle.In cases not covered by this Policy but covered by any of the various documents, presentations, issuances, memoranda, policies, procedures, and guidelines on the Senior Project, said document, presentation, issuance, memorandum, policy, procedure, or guideline shall remain to be in full force and effect. Otherwise, the Dean of the College of Computer Studies shall have the final decision as academic administrator.

Section 2. Policy Construction. In case of multiple interpretations of any of the provisions in this document, the interpretation of the majority of the Faculty of Computer Science shall prevail.

Section 3. Repealing Clause. All documents, presentations, issuances, memoranda, policies, procedures, and guidelines on the Senior Project, issued within the level of the college, or parts thereof which are not consistent with this document, are hereby deemed abrogated or modified accordingly.

Section 4. Separability Clause. If any part of this document is declared inconsistent with the existing University policies, guidelines, and procedures by the University President, or if the latter has made a directive altering or modifying any part of this document, the remaining part not affected thereby shall remain valid and effective.

Section 5. Effectivity Clause. This document shall be effective upon presentation to the senior student population of the College of Computer Studies taking up Senior Project.

APPENDICES

A             What is Business Attire?
B             Application for Senior Project Proposal Defense
C             Application for Senior Project Preliminary Defense
D             Application for Senior Project Final Defense
E             Template Letter of Acceptance of Proposed Project
F             Template for Documentation (Applied Research)
G             Template for Documentation (Basic Research)

 Appendix A
What is Business Attire?
By Myrna Hoover

What is business attire? It is the written or unwritten dress code of an organization. Business attire suggests a formal, conservative dress style. It is what is expected when interviewing with an employer unless stated otherwise. Attention to detail, impeccable grooming, and a well-fitted suit are a must to make a lasting good impression.

Business Attire for Males

The Suit:

  • Choose suits neutral in color – charcoal, navy, or gray. Black suits while in style are less appropriate for an interview.
  • The pant leg should touch the front of the shoe and fall just above the heel in the back.
  • Pants can either have cuffs or not.
  • The fabric of the suit should be gabardine or wool. Blended material is acceptable but avoid cotton blends as they wrinkle.
  • The suit jacket should be buttoned while standing and unbuttoned to sit. Do not button the bottom button of a three or two-piece suit.
  • Avoid suits with double-breasted jackets.

The Dress Shirt:

  • Choose shirts in white, ecru, or light blue.
  • If possible, have your shirt professionally laundered.
  • Always wear a long sleeve shirt.
  • Pointed collars give a more professional image than button down collars, yet both are acceptable.
  • Avoid shirts with insignias on them.
  • The shirt’s sleeve should extend beyond the suit jacket sleeves by 1/2 inch. Always wear an undershirt (avoid v necks) as they give the appearance of a finished look.

The Tie:

  • Wear a conservative tie with subtle patterns or solid colors.
  • Ties should be of good quality and made of 100% silk.
  • Always wear a tie that is darker than your shirt.
  • Tie your tie to fall in the middle of your belt.

Socks, Shoes and Belt:

  • Wing tips or lace up conservative shoes are the most appropriate. Loafers should be used for business casual.
  • Choose black, brown or burgundy shoes. Shoe color should match your suit or be of a darker color.
  • Shoes should be in good condition and polished.
  • Socks should match the color of your suit and cover your calves.
  • Belts should be in good condition and match the color of your shoes.

Accessories:

  • Men should limit accessories/jewelry to 3 pieces.
  • Accessories include watch, ring, handkerchief, lapel pins, cuff links, and tie tacks. A dress watch should be worn, avoid athletic styles.
  • Avoid bracelets, necklaces, and visible piercings.

Grooming:

  • Facial hair should be neatly trimmed (moustache, sideburns), beards are not recommended for an interview.
  • Hair should be neat and conservative, not touching the collar of your shirt.
  • Heavy cologne should be avoided. Soap and antiperspirant will allow the interviewer to remember you not your scent.
  • Nails should be clean and manicured.

BUSINESS ATTIRE FOR WOMEN

The Suit:

  • Choose a classic suit avoiding trendy suit styles.
  • For a conservative organization, a skirt suit is still considered the appropriate interview attire. A pantsuit while acceptable for some organizations is still considered less formal.
  • Hemlines should be knee length or longer.
  • Choose wool, gabardine or rayon fabric.
  • Color does not have to be limited to dark colors, but when in doubt, the answer is NO.
  • Make sure the suit flatters your figure and is a good fit, not too tight or too loose.
  • Jacket sleeves should fall 1/2 inch below your wrist.

The Blouse:

  • Blouses should be updated, but neither low cut nor revealing.
  • Do not wear a camisole or see through blouse.

Shoes and Hose:

  • Shoes should be pumps or sling backs, do not wear shoes with open toes, open heel, or ankle straps.
  • Shoes should be of good quality leather; shoe color should be darker than your suit.
  • Heels should be 1-2 inches; higher heels should be saved for after hours.
  • Hosiery should be worn with a skirt to match your skin tone or suit.
  • Skin colored hose should always be worn with short sleeve suits to create a balanced look.

Accessories:

  • Jewelry should be keep minimal and conservative. Remove all facial piercing except earrings.
  • Follow one of the following rules when accessorizing for an interview.
  • The 5-Piece Rule: Wear only 5 accessories – earrings count as 2; watch counts as 3, allowing 2 additional accessories, or The 13-Piece Rule: Wear only 13 accessories remembering to count each button on your suit front and sleeves as individual pieces. Regardless which rule you follow, the meaning is clear, do not over accessorize.

Make-up and Grooming:

  • Makeup should be natural looking, better toned down than so loud that they remember your eye shadow but you.
  • Nails should be clean and manicured, avoid overly long fingernails and nail art.
  • Nail polish and lip color should not be too trendy or bright.
  • Hair should be clean, neat in appearance.
  • Perfume should be applied very lightly if at all. A good soap and antiperspirant will allow the interviewer to remember you not your scent.

Start of Implementation: June 2006